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Russian History: XX century

Russian History: XIX сentury

Anne Frank

Yekaterina Malinina
World History CP
Mr. Wilson 230

    Anne Frank

    Anne Frank was born in Germany on June 12, 1929. She lived with her father Otto and mother Edith Frank. Anne's sister, Margo was three years older. Anne loved Margo very much. It was very happy and really good family. The sisters studied in good school and they had Catholic, Protestant and Jewish friend. But in March 1933, the National Socialist party was elected and after that we can see real descrimination! All jews had a spesial sign that they are jewish people. And other people couldn't talk with them at all. In the movie we saw when three girls went after school and talked to each other, mom of not jewish girl screamed on her doughter get out from jews!
    When Adolf Hitler took control over them, were started big jewish pogroms. Before him their family had everything! They had a big nice house with good food. They even celebrated shabat every week. They were relly happy. But after Hitler came they have nothing. They lost their house, there traditions and family.
    June, 1939 - Anne's family went to the beach, but her mother didn't give Anne play or sweem. Otto Frank, Anne's father, saw a beautifu couple, they were happy, and here we can see conflict: Otto likes his children much more than wife.
    July 15, 1942 - Anne's mother got a letter that  their family will be arrested or something like that and they have to hide somewhere very fast. Otto and Edith Frank knew that as long as the Nazis were in power, life for Jews in Germany would become more and more dangerous. And they decided to move to the Netherlands. In Amsterdam, Anne and her sister had a busy and happy life, they quickly learned Dutch, attended school, and made many new friends.
    In May 1940 the Nazis got Holland and soon began to place limits on the economic and social freedom the citizens. In the movie we saw how Jews had to register with the authorities so the Germans knew the names and addresses of every Jew in Holland. Jewish children were forced to attend only Jewish schools. Everybody must had cards. Those issued to the Jews were stamped with a "J" and they were often stopped by the police and made to show the I.D. card. Another problem was that Jews were required to hand over their bicycles and barred from riding trolleys or using cars. Jews were set apart from other citizens and association between Jews and Gentiles was forbidden. - it's horrible jewish descrimination again!
    Later, Anne's father, Otto Frank, started to get secret rooms and some food for hiding. Their compony was in real Nazic danger. In June of the same year the Nazi leaders announced that all Jews were to be transported to labor camps in Germany. Otto knew that this was the time for him to disappear with his family. And they did it. The rooms where they hid became known as the secret annex or " the house behind".
    Another problem inside the little girl was that she didn't have person who she can tell her real feelings and she decided to be her best friend - her own diary "kitty". Every time she wrote there her feelings and ideas. Anne wrote inside the front cover of her diary: "I hope I will be able to confide everything to you, as I have never been able to confide in anyone, and I hope that you will be a great source of comfort and support." - in the movie we can see how this little woman (how to call her father) was really clever and understanding person.
    In the movie I saw one very interesting episode when all jews in that secret room was eating Anne said something about their terrible relationships and they just looked at her as animal. And I can explain why. One day my russian history teacher tald me: "People don'tt like clever people". - that's the reason why they didn't like Anne.
    Ok. Let's continue... During the time the Frank family was in hiding only few people knew about them. They were their NOT JEWISH friends. They gave them food and some useful outside information about world. This was a very risky undertaking. But they were real friens. We have to proud of that people.
    January, 1943 - when Anne was in school their teacher came into class. He was shaking, he took chalk but he couldn't write anything. He stoped and said: "The last night they took my wife" - he was crying. That's really horrible when you lose your very close person, who you loved very much.
    Another little conflict appired between Anne and anoother guy in that secret room, where they lived together. They needed a table to write, but it was just one table. Anne was very angry when he took that table because she wanted to write her notes in kitty. This is a conflict called relationships.
    On Friday morning, August 4, 1944, a German police officer accompanied by four men in civilian clothes entered the building. The men had been told of the families in hiding. And they knew exactly where to go to find them. No one knows who the informer was.
(from basic facts):   
Anne and her group were first sent to the Westerbork transit camp. In September they were transported to the extermination camp in Auschwitz-Birkenau where Anne's mother and Herman van Pels died very soon. Peter van Pels perished in Mauthausen. Auguste van Pels died somewhere in or near Theresienstadt. Anne and Margo were sent to Bergen-Belsen camp, where in March 1945, they died of typhus and starvation. Anne was just short of her 16th birthday. Of the group, Otto Frank was the only survivor. He was freed when the Russians liberated Auschwitz in January 1945. When Otto Frank returned to Amsterdam after the war, Miep Gies gave him Anne's diaries and exercise books. When he knew that Anne was dead he began copying whole sections out of the diaries to send to other surviving family and friends. Since parts of the diary had been rewritten and revised by Anne herself, he edited the text also, omitting parts he deemed too personal to be included in a document to be read by others. Those who read the excerpts recognized the value of such a document and urged him to seek a publisher. The manuscript was corrected and edited by several people in addition to Otto Frank. Several publishers rejected the manuscript before it was at last accepted in 1947 by a Dutch publisher who printed only a small number of copies. The edition was well received and in 1950, there was a German and a French edition. In 1952, an edition of the diaries was published in the United States where it was received with great acclaim. A dramatic version of the story of Anne's ordeal was presented on the stage. In the 1950's, people who hated Jews and wanted to discredit the Holocaust and anything connected with it, began to publish articles stating that the diary was a hoax. When Otto Frank died in 1980, he gave the diary to the Netherlands State Institute for War Documentation. There was so much controversy connected with the authenticity of the diary, the N.S.I.W.D. felt obliged to subject every part of the diary to scientific testing in order to determine its authenticity once and for all. They tested the paper, the ink, the glue that bound the book together, the handwriting, the postage stamps and censorship stamps on postcards and letters that Anne and her family sent during their time in hiding. The forensic experts produced a highly technical, 250-page report on their findings. It proved that the diaries were written by one person during the period in question and the changes made to the diaries were of a very limited nature. It proved beyond any doubt that the diaries were authentic. Anne Frank's diary is a testament to her keen powers of observation and the growth of her maturity and insight. It has had an emotional impact on all who have read it. The diary makes us aware of what it is like to live each day in fear of being ripped from one's home and loved ones, the fear of losing one's very life only because of having been born a Jew in a land and at a time when barbaric Nazi ideology ruled.

    We have to remember about Holocost every time, and how died our brothers.



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